Islamist Radicalisation in Europe and the Middle East: Reassessing the Causes of Terrorism, by George Joffé
(First paragraph) Radicalism, radicalization, violence, and terrorism have increasingly drawn the attention of scholars since the events of 11 September 2001. These scholars belong to various disciplines including: theology, political science, sociology, psychology, history, and other fields that provide important insights on such issues. Yet, although these different areas of study disagree about the appropriate use of the term `radicalization,´ they often assign this phenomena to the non-state realm while blending it with concepts of `extremism´ and `violence´. Some of these studies not only mix together and overlap radicalization with violence, but go further and identify radicalization and extremism specifically with Islamic doctrines “ as being responsible for violence in the Middle East and in European Muslim communities.