An assessment of discursive changes in Islamic metaphysics -Thubūt as an interpretation of the concept of possibility or nonexistence and the nonexistence of nonexistence-

Authors

  • Ekrem Demirli Istanbul University

Keywords:

Nonexistence, the concept of possibility, Ibn al-ʿArabī, Islamic metaphysics, Sufism

Abstract

https://doi.org/10.12730/13091719.2010.11.4 In its beginnings, Sufism was a moral movement concerned with asceticism (zuhd) and poverty (faqr). Later, Sufism's second period, which was called "Sunnī Sufism" with problems arising from a spiritual life of which the theoretical basis is unknown, was again within the limits of a moral content. Finally came an era of maturity with the advent of Ibn al-ʿArabī and his followers, who revealed a set of metaphysical principles for moral life. In this last period, the Sufis, who have always been loyal to their own methods, instruments and (especially) to the objectives that have always aimed at the progress of morals, dealt largely with theoretical problems, interpreted the relations among God, man and the universe, expressed at times the already-discussed traditional problems in a new style, and extended the field of metaphysical thought in Islam by adding and considering new problems. In extending the domain of metaphysics, concentrating on the problem of the relations between God and man, Sufism has represented an attempt to express the intellectual heritage put forth by Islam for a period of four centuries through various philosophical-religious traditions and dialectical relations; consequently, a Sufi language or discourse has arisen that describes traditional problems by means of a renovation of terms and styles. One of the main obstacles facing the academic study of Sufism is determining the relation between this language and the theoretical discourse that has arisen within Islamic philosophy and within kalām (Islamic theology). If this obstacle can be overcome, the origins of Sufism and the degree of its contribution to the heritage of Islamic reflection as a whole will be revealed.

References

ʿAfīfī, Abū l-ʿAlā, "İbnü'l-Arabî'nin Ayân-ı Sâbitesi ve Madûmât [al-Aʿyān al-thābita and al-maʿdūmāt in Ibn al-ʿArabī]", İslâm Düşüncesi Üzerine Makaleler [Articles on Islamic Thought], ed. with trans. Ekrem Demirli, (Istanbul: İz Yayıncılık, 2000).

ānqarāwī, Rusūkh al-Dīn Rusūkhī Ismāʿīl b. Aḥmad, Minhāj al-fuqarāʾ, (ed. Safi Arpaguş; Istanbul: Vefa Yayınları, 2008).

Chittick, William C., The Self-disclosure of God: Principles of Ibn al-ʿArabī's Cosmology, (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998).

Çakmaklıoğlu, Mustafa, İbnü'l-Arabî'de Marifetin İfadesi [The Expression of Knowledge in Ibn al-ʿArabī], (Istanbul: İnsan Yayınları, 2007).

Demirli, Ekrem, İslâm Metafiziğinde Tanrı ve İnsan [God and Man in Islamic Metaphysics], (Istanbul: Kabalcı Yayınları, 2008).

Demirli, Ekrem, Sadreddin Konevî'de Bilgi ve Varlık [Knowledge and Being in á¹¢adr al-Dīn al-Qūnawī], (Istanbul: İz Yayıncılık, 2005).

Demirli, Ekrem, "Varlık Olmak Bakımından Varlık İfadesinin Sufiler Tarafından Yeniden Yorumlanması [A New Interpretation of the Sufi Phrase 'Being qua Being' and the Metaphysical Results of This Interpretation]", İslâm Araştırmaları Dergisi [Turkish Journal of Islamic Studies] , 18 (2007), 27-47.

Fārābī, Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Ṭarkhān, Felsefenin Temel Meseleleri: Uyûnü'l-mesâil [Major Themes in Philosophy: ʿUyūn al-masāʾil], in Mahmut Kaya (ed. with translation), İslâm Filozoflarından Felsefe Metinleri [Selected Texts from Islamic Philoso-phers] , 2nd ed., (Istanbul: Klasik Yayınları, 2003), 117-126.

Hujwīrī, Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿUthmān b. ʿAlī, Hakikat Bilgisi [Kashf al-mahjūb], trans. Süleyman Uludağ, (Istanbul: Dergâh Yayınları, 1982).

Ibn al-ʿArabī, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥyī al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAlī, Fusûsu'l-hikem [Fuṣūṣ al-ḥikam] , trans. with a commentary by Ekrem Demirli, (Istanbul: Kabalcı Yayınevi, 2006).

Ibn al-ʿArabī, Fütûhât-ı Mekkiyye [al-Futūḥāt al-Makkiyya] , 11 vols., trans. Ekrem Demirli, (Istanbul: Litera Yayıncılık, 2006-2009).

Ibn al-ʿArabī, Rasāʾil Ibn al-ʿArabī, Kitāb al-fanāʾ, (ed. Muḥammad Shihāb al-Dīn; Beirut: Dār á¹¢ādir, 1997).

Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī Ḥusayn b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAlī, Metafizik [al-Shifāʾ: al-Ilāhiyyāt], 2 vols., trans. Ekrem Demirli and Ömer Türker, (Istanbul: Litera Yayıncılık, 2004).

Jābirī, Muḥammad ʿābid, Arap-İslâm Kültürünün Akıl Yapısı [Binyat al-ʿaql al-ʿArabī], trans. Burhan Köroğlu et al., (Istanbul: Kitabevi Yayınları, 1999).

Kāshānī, Kamāl al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Razzāq b. Aḥmad, Tasavvuf Sözlüğü [A Dictionary of Islamic Mysticism: Laṭāʾif al-aʿlām fī ishārāt ahl al-ilhām], trans. Ekrem Demirli, (Istanbul: İz Yayıncılık, 2005).

Kātib Chalabī, Ḥājī Khalīfa Muṣṭafá b. ʿAbd Allāh, Kashf al-ẓunūn ʿan asāmī l-kutub wa l-funūn, 2 vols., (ed. M. Şerefeddin Yaltkaya and Kilisli Rifat Bilge; Istanbul: Maarif Matbaası, 1941-1943).

Kılıç, M. Erol, İbn Arabî Düşüncesine Giriş [Introduction to the Philosophy of Ibn al-ʿArabī], (Istanbul: Sufi Kitap, 2009).

Qayṣarī, Sharaf al-Dīn Dāwūd b. Maḥmūd b. Muḥammad, Maṭlaʿ khuṣūṣ al-kilam fī maʿānī Fuṣūṣ al-ḥikam, (ed. Muḥammad b. Ḥasan Saʿīdī; Cairo: Dār al-Iʿtiṣām, 1416).

Qayṣarī, Risāla fī ʿilm al-taṣawwuf, in his al-Rasāʾil, (ed. with an introduction by Mehmet Bayraktar; Kayseri: Kayseri Büyükşehir Belediyesi Yayınları, 1997), 105-133.

Qūnawī, á¹¢adr al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Isḥāq b. Muḥammad, Fatiha Tefsiri [Exegesis of Sūrat al-Fātiḥa: Iʿjāz al-bayān fī tafsīr Umm al-Qurʾān] , trans. Ekrem Demirli, (Istanbul: İz Yayıncılık, 2002).

Qūnawī, İlâhî Nefhalar: en-Nefehâtü'l-ilâhiyye [al-Nafaḥāt al-ilāhiyya] , trans. Ekrem Demirli, (Istanbul: İz Yayıncılık, 2002).

Qūnawī, Tasavvuf Metafiziği [Metaphysics of Islamic Mysticism: Miftāḥ ghayb al-jamʿ wa l-wujūd], trans. Ekrem Demirli, (Istanbul: İz Yayıncılık, 2002).

Qushayrī, Abū l-Qāsim Zayn al-Islām ʿAbd al-Karīm b. Hawāzin, al-Risālā al-Qushayriyya, (ed. ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm Maḥmūd and Maḥmūd b. Sharīf; Cairo: Dār al-Kutub al-Ḥadītha, 1966).

Sarrāj, Abū Naṣr ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad, İslâm Tasavvufu: Lüma [Islamic Mysticism: al-Lumaʿ], trans. H. Kamil Yılmaz, (Istanbul: Altınoluk, 1997).

Downloads

Published

2010-10-14

How to Cite

Demirli, E. (2010). An assessment of discursive changes in Islamic metaphysics -Thubūt as an interpretation of the concept of possibility or nonexistence and the nonexistence of nonexistence-. Ilahiyat Studies: A Journal on Islamic and Religious Studies, 1(1), 37–63. Retrieved from https://ilahiyatstudies.org/index.php/journal/article/view/47

Issue

Section

Articles