Muslim Responses to the Crusades “ An Analysis of the Muslim Ideological, Military and Diplomatic Responses to the Medieval Christian Crusades “


  • Mohd Yaseen Gada Aligarh University

Abstract Muslim responses to the Crusades have been a focus of modern scholarship in both Crusades studies and medieval Islamic history over the last decade or so. This important aspect of the Crusades had been largely, if not entirely, ignored by Western scholars owing to their particular Western academic environment. One of the common misconceptions about the Muslim understanding of and response to the Crusaders is the view that the Muslims knew little, if anything, about them and were confused about the difference between the Byzantines and the Franks (Crusaders). Consequently, it took the Muslims approximately a half century to organize a unified Muslim front to fight against the Crusaders. Despite this view, Muslim sources reveal that Muslim intellectuals and religious figures closely observed the Crusaders´ actions and motives, and they did, in various ways, respond to this hitherto unimagined flood of people from the West. This paper attempts to highlight and explore the Muslim ideological, religious, military, and diplomatic responses to the Crusaders.

Author Biography

Mohd Yaseen Gada, Aligarh University



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How to Cite

Gada, M. Y. (2016). Muslim Responses to the Crusades “ An Analysis of the Muslim Ideological, Military and Diplomatic Responses to the Medieval Christian Crusades “. Ilahiyat Studies, 6(2), 219–252. Retrieved from