Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

An Analysis on the Operations and Functions of a Sharīʿah Court: the Case of Ottoman Üsküdar (1547-1551)

Faika Çelik

Abstract


https://doi.org/10.12730/13091719.2020.112.208

Through a close reading of a single register found in the sixteenth-century court record series of Üsküdar, this article introduces the reader to the operations of the Sharīʿah court of Üsküdar and its records from 1547 to 1551. By approaching the court records as both “text” and “document,” it explores the functions of the court, identifies the court officials, defines their roles, and delineates the role played by the qāḍī, his court and the local community in the administration of justice. This article can be read as a contribution to the newly emerging literature on variations in the Sharīʿah courts in the Ottoman Empire in terms of their operations. As the recent literature including this present study demonstrates, the duties of the local Sharīʿah court in the Ottoman Empire are neither singular nor monolithic. While some of the courts provided notarial and administrative services primarily, others acted as significant sites for dispute resolution. Hence their operations were primarily judicial. What emerges from this study is that the court of Üsküdar in the very middle of the sixteenth century primarily functioned as a “public registry.”

Keywords


Court, Sharīʿah law, Ottoman, Üsküdar, Istanbul

Full Text:

FULL TEXT

References


Primary Sources

Üsküdar Mahkemesi Şeriyye Sicilleri 15 No’lu Defter (USS 15).

Studies

Agmon, Iris. Family & Court: Legal Culture and Modernity in Late Ottoman Palestine. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 2006.

Agmon, Iris, and Ido Shahar. “Theme Issue: Shifting Perspectives in the Study of Shariʿa Courts: Methodologies and Paradigms.” Islamic Law and Society 15 (2008): 1-19.

Arcak, Sinem. “Üsküdar as the Site for the Mosque Complexes of Royal Women in the Sixteenth Century.” Master’s thesis, Istanbul: Sabancı University, 2004.

Aykan, Yavuz, and Boğaç Ergene. “Shariʿa Courts in the Ottoman Empire Before the Tanzimat.” The Medieval History Journal 22, no. 2 (2019): 203-228. https://doi.org/10.1177/0971945819897437.

Barkan, Ömer Lütfi. “Research on the Ottoman Fiscal Surveys.” In Studies in the Economic History of the Middle East, edited by Michael A. Cook, 163-171. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1970.

Bostan, M. Hanefi. “Üsküdar.” In Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm Ansiklopedisi (DİA), XLII, 364-368.

Canbakal, Hülya. Society and Politics in an Ottoman Town: ʿAyntab in the 17th Century. Leiden & New York: Brill Academic Publications, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004154568.i-216.

Cici, Recep. “Osmanlı Klâsik Dönemi Fıkıh Kitapları.” Türkiye Araştırmaları Literatür Dergisi 3, no. 5 (2005): 215-248.

———. Osmanlı Dönemi İslam Hukuku Çalışmaları Kuruluştan Fatih Devrinin Sonuna Kadar. Bursa: Arasta Yayınları, 2001.

Coşgel, Metin, and Boğaç Ergene. The Economics of Ottoman Justice: Settlement and Trial in the Sharia Courts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316662182.

Çelik, Faika. ““Community in Motion”: Gypsies in Ottoman Imperial State Policy, Public Morality and at the Sharīʿah Court of Üsküdar (1530s-1585s),” PhD diss., Montreal: McGill University, 2014.

Çizakça, Murat. A Comparative Evolution of Business Partnerships: the Islamic World and Europe, with specific reference to the Ottoman Archives. New York: Brill, 1996.

Ergene, Boğaç A. Local Court, Provincial Society, and Justice in the Ottoman Empire: Legal Practice and Dispute Resolution in Çankırı and Kastamonu (1652-1744). Leiden, Boston & Mass.: Brill, 2003.

———. “Costs of Court Usage in Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Ottoman Anatolia: Court Fees as recorded in Estate Inventories.” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 45, no. 1 (2002): 20-39. https://doi.org/10.1163/156852002320123046.

Ekin, Ümit. Kadı Buyurdu Kâtip Yazdı: Tokat’a Dair Bir Sakk Mecmuası. Istanbul: Bilge Kültür Sanat, 2010.

Faroqhi, Suraiya. “The Life and Death of Outlaws in Çorum.” In Coping with the State: Political Conflict and Crime in the Ottoman Empire, 1550-1720, 145-161. Istanbul: Isis Press, 1995.

Ginio, Eyal. “The Administration of Criminal Justice in Ottoman Selanik (Salonica) during the Eigteenth Century.” Turcica 31 (1999): 185-209. https://doi.org/10.2143/TURC.30.0.2004297.

Güneş, Ahmet. “16. ve 17. Yüzyıllarda Üsküdar’ın Mahalleleri ve Nüfusu.” In Üsküdar Sempozyumu I, (2004): 42-56.

Hallaq, Wael B. Shariʿa: Theory, Practice, Transformations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511815300.

———. “Model Shurūṭ Works and the Dialectic of Doctrine and Practice.” Islamic Law and Society 2, no. 2 (1995): 109-134. https://doi.org/10.1163/1568519952599394.

İstekli, Müslüm. “Üsküdar’ın Sosyal ve İktisâdî Hayatıyla İlgili Üsküdar Kadı Sicillerindeki Kayıtların Tespit ve Analizi (H. 978/991, M. 1570/1584).” Master’s Thesis, Istanbul: Marmara University, 2005.

Jennings, Ronald C. “Limitations of the Judicial Powers of the Kadi in 17th c. Ottoman Kayseri.” Studia Islamica 50 (1979): 151-184. https://doi.org/10.2307/1595562.

Kaya, Süleyman. “Mahkeme Kayıtlarının Kılavuzu: Sakk Mecmuaları.” Türkiye Literatür Araştırmaları Dergisi 3, no. 5 (2005): 379-416.

Królikowska-Jedlińska, Natalia. Law and Division of Power in the Crimean Khanate (1532-1774): With Special Reference to the Reign of Murad Giray (1678-1683). Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004384323_006.

Mandaville, Jon E. “Usurious Piety: the Cash waqf Controversy in the Ottoman Empire.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 10, no. 3 (1979): 289-308. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020743800000118.

Marcus, Abraham. The Middle East on the Eve of Modernity: Aleppo in the Eighteenth Century. New York: Columbia University Press, 1989.

Özcan, Tahsin. Osmanlı Para Vakıfları: Kanuni Dönemi Üsküdar Örneği. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, 2003.

Peirce, Leslie. Morality Tales: Law and Gender in the Ottoman Court of Aintab. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520926974.

Al-Qattan, Najwa. “Dhimmis in the Muslim Court: Documenting Justice in Ottoman Damascus 1775-1860.” Ph.D. Dissertation, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University, 1996.

———. “Textual Differentiation in the Damascus Sijill; Religious Discrimination or Politics of Gender?” In Women, the Family, and Divorce Laws in Islamic History, edited by A. E. A. Sonbol, 191-201. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1997.

Sariyanis, Marinos. ““Neglected Trades”: Glimpses into the 17th Century Istanbul Underworld.” Turcica 38 (2006): 155-179. https://doi.org/10.2143/TURC.38.0.2021272.

Seng, Yvonne. “The Üsküdar Estates (Tereke) as Records of Everyday Life in an Ottoman Town, 1521–1524.” PhD Dissertation, Chicago, IL.: University of Chicago, 1991.

Tak, Ekrem. “XVI. Yüzyılın İlk Yarısında Üsküdar'da Sosyal ve İktisadi Hayatın Göstergeleri: Üsküdar Kadı Sicilleri Üzerine Bir Çalışma.” Master’s Thesis, Istanbul: Marmara University, 2002.

Tamdoğan-Abel, Işık. “L’écrit comme échec de l’oral? L’oralité des engagements et des règlements à travers les registres de cadis d’Adana au XVIIIe siècle,” Revue du monde Musulman et de la Mediterrenée 75-76 (1995): 155-165. https://doi.org/10.3406/remmm.1995.2619.

———. “Sulh and the 18th Century Ottoman Courts of Üsküdar and Adana.” Islamic Law and Society 15 (2008): 55-83. https://doi.org/10.1163/156851908X287307.

———. “Atı Alan Üsküdar’ı Geçti.” In Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nda Asayiş, Suç ve Ceza, edited by N. Lévy and A. Toumarkine, 80-95. Istanbul: Tarih Vakfı Yurt Yayınları, 2007.

Urkaç Güler, Nuray. “16. Yüzyılda Üsküdar’da Gülfem Hatun Mahallesi (1540-1600).” Master’s Thesis, Istanbul: Marmara University, 2008. 

Ünal, Halit. “Şurût-Sukûk İslâm Hukukunda Belge Tanzimi.” Diyanet Dergisi 22, no. 3 (1986): 24-31.

Yalçın, Nihat. “1572-1587 (H. 980-995) Yılları Arası Üsküdar Mahkemesi Kadı Sicilleri’nin Sosyal ve İktisadi Açıdan Değerlendirmesi.” Master’s Thesis, Istanbul: Marmara University, 2009.

Yıldız, Kenan. “Üsküdar’ın Sosyal ve İktisâdî Hayatı ile İlgili Üsküdar Kadı Sicillerindeki Kayıtların Tespit ve Analizi (H. 954-980/M. 1547-1573).” Master’s Thesis, Istanbul: Marmara University, 2005.

Ze’evi, Dror. “The Use of Ottoman Sharīʿa Court Records as a Source for Middle Eastern Social History: A Reappraisal.” Islamic Law and Society 5, no. 1 (1998): 31-56. https://doi.org/10.1163/1568519982599616.

Zarinebaf, Fariba. Crime and Punishment in Istanbul: 1700-1800. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520947566.






Copyright (c) 2021 Ilahiyat Studies: A Journal on Islamic and Religious Studies

Ilahiyat Studies: A Journal on Islamic and Religious Studies, 2009-2020 eISSN 1309-1719

Design by Bursa İlahiyat Foundation