The prayer of jawshan - a study of its sources -

Abdullah Aydınlı

Abstract


https://doi.org/10.12730/13091719.2011.21.27


This essay attempts to question the authenticity of the so called Jawshan by analyzing the canonical sources of ḥadīth literature to determine whether it can be traced back to the Prophet of Islam. After subjecting the Jawshan to a careful analysis of chain (sanad) and text (matn), the essay concludes that there is neither a reliable source nor a valid set of academic criteria that would prove that the text concerned is attributable to the Prophet of Islam. The results of our source analysis, the literature survey, and certain other historical data lead us to believe that this prayer, Jawshan, may have first appeared within the "Shīʿī world" in the prayer books by Ibrāhīm al-Kafʿamī, and only later was introduced to the "Sunnī world" through Majmūʿat al-aḥzāb, the collection of prayers by al-Gumushkhānawī, and gained wide circulation among certain groups.

Keywords


Jawshan prayer, Shīʿa, al-Gumushkhānawī, Majmūʿat alaḥzāb, Bediuzzaman

References


Akhtar, S. Waheed, Early Shīʿite Imāmiyyah Thinkers (New Delhi: Ashish Publishing House, 1988).

Amir-Moezzi, Mohammad Ali, "al-Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan Abū Djaʿfar," The Encyclopaedia of Islam Second Edition, X, 745-746.

al-ʿAsqalānī, Abū l-Faḍl Ibn Ḥajar Shihāb al-Dīn, al-Iṣāba fī tamyīz al-ṣaḥāba, 8 vols., (ed. ʿAlī Muḥammad al-Bījāwī; Cairo: Dār Nahḍat Miṣr, 1972).

al-ʿAsqalānī, Taqrīb al-Tahdhīb, 2 vols., (eds. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb ʿAbd al-Laṭīf et al.; 2nd ed., Beirut: Dār al-Maʿrifa, 1975).

Avcı, Seyit, Sûfilerin Hadis Anlayışı - Bursevî Örneği - [Sufis' Understanding of Ḥadīth - The Case of al-Būrsawī -] (Istanbul: Ensar Yayıncılık, 2004).

Aydüz, Davut, "Cevşen Üzerine [On the Jawshan]," Yeni Ümit 13/51 (Jan.-Feb.-March 2001), 32-37.

Aydüz, Davut, Hizbu Envâri'l-Hakâiki'n-Nûriyye: Büyük Cevşen ve Meali [Ḥizb anwār al-ḥaqāʾiq al-nūriyya: The Great Jawshan and Its Turkish Translation] (Istanbul: Define Yayınları, 2010).

Badıllı, Abdülkadir, Bediüzzaman Said-i Nursî Tarihçe-i Hayatı [Bedi-uzzaman Saʿīd Nūrsī: His Biography] , 3 vols., (Istanbul: Timaş Yayınları, 1990).

Badıllı, Abdülkadir, Risale-i Nûr'un Kudsî Kaynakları [The Divine Sources of Risāla-i Nūr] (Istanbul: Envar Neşriyat, 1992).

al-Bayhaqī, Abū Bakr Aḥmad ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī, Dalāʾil al-nubuwwa, 7 vols., (ed. ʿAbd al-Muʿṭī Qalʿajī; Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1985).

Bediuzzaman Saʿīd Nūrsī, Emirdağ Lâhikası (Istanbul: Nesil Matbaacılık, 2004).

Bediuzzaman Saʿīd Nūrsī, Mesnevî-i Nûriye (Türkçe Çeviri) [Mathnawī-i Nūriyya (Turkish Translation)] (trans. Abdülmecid Nursi; Istanbul: Osman Yalçın Matbaası, 1958).

Bediuzzaman Saʿīd Nūrsī, Sözler [The Words] (Istanbul: Sinan Matbaası, 1958).

Bediuzzaman Saʿīd Nūrsī, Şuâlar [The Rays] (Istanbul: Çeltüt Matbaası, 1960).

Demirel, Muhsin, Evrâd-ı Nuriye (Istanbul: İnşirah İslamî Araştırmalar Merkezi, 1997).

"Ebced ve Cevşen [Abjad and Jawshan]," Zaman, 01.09.1992, 10.

"Fasıldan Fasıla - Cevşen," Zaman, 20.04.1994, 7.

Gharīb, Maʾmūn, Abū l-Ḥasan al-Shādhilī: Ḥayātuhū, taṣawwufuhū, talāmīdhuhū wa-awrāduhū (Cairo: Dār Gharīb, 2000).

al-Ghazzālī, Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad, Ihyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn, 4 vols., (Cairo: n.p., 1957).

al-Gumushkhānawī, Aḥmad Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn, Majmūʿat al-aḥzāb, 3 vols., (n.p., n.d.).

Gülen, M. Fethullah, Prizma I [Prism I] (Istanbul: Nil Yayınları, 1997).

Ḥabībī, Najafqūlī, "Muqaddimat al-Muṣaḥḥīḥ [Editor's Introduction]," in Mullā Asrār Hādī ibn Mahdī Sabzawārī, Sharḥ al-asmāʾ (Sharḥ duʿāʾ al-jawshan al-kabīr) (ed. Najafqūlī Ḥabībī; Tehran: Dānishgāh-i Ṭahrān, 1993).

Hatip, Abdülaziz, Kur'an ve Hikmet Işığında Cevşen Şerhi [The Commentary of Jawshan in the Light of the Qurʾān and Ḥikma] (Istanbul: Nesil Yayınları, 2009).

al-Ḥillī, al-Sayyid ʿAlī ibn Ṭāwūs, Muhaj al-daʿawāt (Qum: Dār al-Dhakhāʾir, 1990).

Ḥusayn, M. Hidāyat, "al-Ṭūsī Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan ibn ʿAlī Abū Jaʿfar," Urdū Dāʾira-i Maʿārif-i Islāmiyya (Lahore: Dānishgāh-i Panjāb, 1973), XII, 573-574.

Ibn Manẓūr, Abū l-Faḍl Muḥammad ibn Mukarram ibn ʿAlī, Lisān al-ʿArab, 18 vols., (eds. Amīn Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Wahhāb and Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq al-ʿUbaydī; Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1999).

al-Kafʿamī, Taqī al-Dīn Ibrāhīm ibn ʿAlī, al-Balad al-amīn wa-l-dirʿ al-ḥaṣīn (Tehran: Muʾassasa-i Taḥqīqāt wa-Nashr-i Maʿārif-i Ahl al-Bayt, 1963).

al-Kafʿamī, Junnat al-amān al-wāqiya wa-jannat al-aymān al-bāqiya (n.p., n.d.).

al-Kafʿamī, al-Miṣbāḥ (Miṣbāḥ al-Kafʿamī) (2nd ed., Qum: Intishārāt-i Raḍī, 1405).

Khalīl ibn Aḥmad, Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Farāhīdī, Kitāb al-ʿayn, 4 vols., (ed. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Hindāwī; Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 2003).

Kurucan, Ahmet, "Dua İkliminde Cevşen I [Jawshan in the Climate of Prayer I]," Zaman, 02.08.1996, 2.

Kurucan, Ahmet, "Dua İkliminde Cevşen III," Zaman, 04.08.1996, 2.

al-Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir, Biḥār al-anwār al-jāmiʿa li-durar akhbār al-aʾimma al-aṭhār, 110 vols., (Beirut: Muʾassasat al-Wafāʾ, 1984).

Muʿīnī, Muḥsin, "Jawshan-i kabīr," Dānishnāma-i Jihān-i Islām (Tehran: Bunyād-i Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif-i Islāmī, 1386 HS) XI, 368-369.

al-Munāwī, Zayn al-Dīn Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Raʾūf ibn Tāj al-ʿārifīn, Fayḍ al-qadīr sharḥ al-Jāmiʿ al-ṣaghīr, 6 vols., (Cairo: Muṣṭafā Muḥammad, 1938).

Şimşek, Ümit, Risâle-i Nûr Işığında Cevşen Meâli [The Translation of Jawshan in the Light of Risāla-i Nūr] (Istanbul: Zafer Yayınları, 1994).

al-Ṭabarsī, Mīrzā Ḥusayn al-Nūrī, Mustadrak al-wasāʾil wa-mustanbaṭ al-masāʾil, 18 vols. (Qum: Muʾassasat Āl al-Bayt li-Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth, 1987-1988).

al-Ṭahrānī, Āghā Buzurg, al-Dharīʿa ilā taṣānīf al-Shīʿa, 10 parts in 8 vols., (Beirut: n.p., n.d.).

Toprak, Mehmet, "Cevşen [Jawshan]," Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm Ansi-klopedisi (DİA) [Turkish Religious Foundation Encyclopedia of Islam] (Istanbul: TDV Yayınları, 1993), VII, 462-464.

al-Ṭūsī, Abū Jaʿfar Shaykh al-ṭāʾifa Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan, Fihrist kutub al-Shīʿa (eds. Mawlawī ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq et al.; Calcutta: n.p., 1853).

Uludağ, Süleyman, "Keşf [Kashf]," Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm Ansiklopedisi (DİA) [Turkish Religious Foundation Encyclopedia of Islam] (Ankara: TDV Yayınları, 2002), XXV, 315-317.

al-Zabīdī, Abū l-Fayḍ Murtaḍā Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad, Tāj al-ʿarūs min jawāhir al-Qāmūs, 10 vols., (Cairo: al-Maṭbaʿa al-Khayriyya, 1306 H.).


Full Text: FULL TEXT



A Journal on Islamic and Religious Studies, 2009-2019 eISSN 1309-1719

Design by Bursa İlahiyat Foundation