Definitiveness of Proof of Ḥarām and Ḥukm of Its Denial in the Ḥanafī School

Seyit Mehmet Uğur

Abstract


http://dx.doi.org/10.12730/13091719.2016.72.150

In Islamic law, knowledge of ḥarām as a judgement (ḥukm) category is as important as determining the deeds that are ḥarām. Accordingly, work on uṣūl al-fiqh describes the concept of ḥarām from several perspectives. Pursuant to some classical Ḥanafī work on uṣūl al-fiqh and certain modern uṣūl studies, the common Ḥanafī view is that proof for prohibition must be definitive to determine what is ḥarām and its denier is subjected to excommunication (takfīr). Nevertheless, based on a general approach in classical Ḥanafī work on uṣūl al-fiqh and the use of the ḥarām concept in furūʿ books, it is impossible to accept the foregoing view as the absolute or preferable opinion in the Ḥanafī school. This study discusses the correctness of this relation for the foregoing approach to the Ḥanafī school through the following claim: According to common Ḥanafī view, definitiveness of proof, which signifies prohibition, is not necessary for determining ḥarām; it can be equally determined through speculative proof. Thus, it is impossible to declare someone unbeliever unless he / she denies a ḥarām with definitive proof.

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